Statistical tools used to show Neanderthals mixed with modern humans also show that Native Americans (Amerindians) and Northern Europeans share a common ancestor, according to new research in the journal Genetics.
“There is a genetic link between the paleolithic population of Europe and modern Native Americans. The evidence is that the population that crossed the Bering Strait from Siberia into the Americas more than 15,000 years ago was likely related to the ancient population of Europe.”
Press release: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-11/gsoa-naa113012.php
The study: http://www.genetics.org/content/early/2012/09/06/genetics.112.145037.short?rss=1
"A fifth mtDNA haplogroup (haplogroup X) represents a minor founding lineage in Native Americans. Unlike haplogroups A-D, haplogroup X is also found at low frequencies in modern European populations. Among Native Americans, haplogroup X appears to be essentially restricted to northern Amerindian groups, including the Ojibwa, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, the Sioux, and the Yakima, although we also observed this haplogroup in the Na-Dene-speaking Navajo. Median network analysis indicated that European and Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs, although distinct, nevertheless are distantly related to each other. Time estimates for the arrival of X in North America are 12,000-36,000 years ago, depending on the number of assumed founders, thus supporting the conclusion that the peoples harboring haplogroup X were among the original founders of Native American populations. To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry.”
"Moreover, Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs form a clade distinct from that of West Eurasians and with coalescence time estimates varying widely depending on both the method of estimation and the number of assumed founders. Thus, the coalescence times ranged from 12,000–17,000 YBP to 23,000–36,000 YBP, times that are consistent with both a pre- and a postglacial population diffusion”
The populations of Altai and the entire region of Siberia acquired the X Haplogroup from European populations:
"Clade X2e, defined by the synonymous substitution at 15310, encompasses all haplogroup X sequences in the Altaians.X2 is spread widely throughout West Eurasia." "Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs derive from X2. Altaian and Siberian haplogroup X lineages are not related to the Native American cluster. The Near East is the likely geographical source for the spread of subhaplogroup X2.”
"Native Americans have been classified into four founding haplogroups with as many as seven founding lineages based on mtDNA RFLPs and DNA sequence data. B2, X6, and X7 are previously unrecognized mitochondrial founding lineage types of Native Americans. The widespread distribution of these haplotypes in the New World and Asia provides support for declaring these lineages to be New World founding types.”
"A few years later, another gentleman tested to be Q1a3, and his ancestor hailed from the PeeDee River region of South Carolina, an area known to be heavily populated with Native people historically, many of which became the Pee Dee and Lumbee today. However, haplogroup Q1a3 is also known to exist in people of European ancestry who have never lived stateside and who have absolutely no ancestry from the Americas.
New Native American Haplogroup (Google Docs)
Haplogroup R1 (Y-DNA) (specially R1b) is the second most predominant Y haplotype found among indigenous Amerindians after Q (Y-DNA):
The distribution of R1 is believed to be associated with the re-settlement of Eurasia following the last glacial maximum. One theory put forth is that it entered the Americas with the initial founding population:
Distribution of Haplogroup R1b:
R1 (M137) is found predominantly in North American groups like the Ojibwe (79%), Chipewyan (62%), Seminole (50%), Cherokee (47%), Dogrib (40%) and Papago (38%):
As above, R1 can reach up to 79% in the Ojibwe, who also have the highest frequency of mtDNA Haplogroup X (25%), as mentioned before.
As Dr. Joseph Lorenz said, after comparing the DNA of the Windover, Florida Bog Remains to Europeans:
“I went back to the screen and I looked at the sequences again, the first person’s DNA looked European. When I looked at the second one it looked European. When I looked at the third, fourth and fifth it was slightly different from the first two but they looked European:”
Aside from the all important DNA sequencing above, there is also revealing archaeological evidence, which can be just as critical:
Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age Europeans in Delmarva 20,000 years ago
"Displaying some of the tools in his office at the National Museum of Natural History, Stanford handles a milky chert blade and says, "This stuff is beginning to give us a real nice picture of occupation of the Eastern Shore (of Maryland) around 20,000 years ago."
“But the mastodon relic found near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay turned out to be 22,000 years old, suggesting that the blade was just as ancient.”
“At the core of Stanford’s case are stone tools recovered from five mid-Atlantic sites. Two sites lie on Chesapeake Bay islands, suggesting that the Solutreans settled Delmarva early on. Smithsonian research associate Darrin Lowery found blades, anvils and other tools found stuck in soil at least 20,000 years old.”
These Eastern Shore blades strongly resemble those found at dozens of Solutrean sites from the Stone Age in Spain and France:
“We can match each one of 18 styles up to the sites in Europe:”
Because of the age of the Solutrean tools, the worry is that a rising sea might have washed away compelling evidence, such as skeletons for DNA analysis.
Like the aforementioned Windover Bog People, The Site of Vero Man, also located in Florida, yielded even more interesting archaeological items:
The most important might be: “the oldest, most spectacular and rare work of art in the Americas.”
“Never before in the Western Hemisphere has there been a bone from an extinct species incised with a recognizable picture of an animal.”
Now, In 2009 scientists announced the discovery of a carving of a mammoth or mastodon on a piece of bone found north of Vero Beach (the general area in which Vero Man was found). The carving may be the oldest art found in the Americas. Scientists studying the carving noted similarities with Pleistocene art in Europe.
Earliest American Art: Mammoth on Mammoth:
Based on many scientific tests, researchers believe the engraving dates from 13,000 to 20,000 years ago.
"The engraving was done by a group of people that we would refer to as Paleoindian or Paleoamericans," the word "Paleoamerican" does not necessarily point to a cultural group, he added, but instead is a “general term that refers to the earliest inhabitants of the Americas.”
The researchers indicate the object may strengthen the controversial theory that people associated with the Solutrean culture of Europe migrated to North America via the North Atlantic Ice Sheet.
In other words, some of America’s first inhabitants could have been Europeans that settled in what is now Florida and at other locations.
"The hypothesis rests upon similarities between Solutrean and Clovis tool technologies that have no known counterparts in Eastern Asia, Siberia, or Beringia — areas that early people are known to have migrated through,” Speakman explained.
As above, the Florida Bog People were haplogroup X, native Americans in the NE have European R Y-DNA haplogroups and some have European X mtDNA, the Solutrean stone tools were found in Virginia and Pennsylvania, the bog people and Vero Man were found in Florida and the man who tested to be Q1a3 had ancestors with ties to the region of South Carolina, which gives you an idea of the early distribution of these Europeans.